Rickenbacker Rick-O-Sound Bass Repair

Craig is a Ric Man.  This beautiful blue bass in only one of his many Rics.  This one has problems with getting both pickups to work.  Could the Unbrokenstring Crew get all this sorted out?

This instrument plays beautifully and has no real discernable setup issues.  However, the wiring seems to be amiss!

 

More than a few of you will have heart palpitations seeing this head stock.

 

Two output jacks allow a mono mix of both pickups as is usually found with most multi-pickup instruments, plus a special “Ric-O-Sound” jack that presents the signals from two pickups as two separated signals, accessible with a stereo cable (TRS.)  This gives the player the ability to run two preamps, two effect loops, two separate amps, etc.

 

Immediately after looking under the pick guard, we find a loose wire.  Poor soldering here.

 

This isn’t even tinned.

 

Here is another broken wire, another ground wire.

 

We have a stack of three inside-tooth lock-washers under each output connector.  Not much spring action available from the teeth of these locking washers, so they don’t really lock.

 

A magnet is the quickest way to clear all this extra hardware out of the control route.

 

This is the stereo jack handling the “Ric-O-Sound” duties.

 

The mono jack handles the single-ended output from this instrument.

 

Soldering workmanship on the switch needs some attention as well.

 

Disconnecting each pickup allows us to do some cleanup in the wiring cavity.  The neck pickup is ohmed-out.  The neck pickup is sometimes called the ‘treble’ pickup.

 

And we do the same with the bridge pickup.  This pickup is also called the ‘bass’ pickup, which seems redundant.

 

Perhaps this soldering was done with plumber’s solder.  It is awfully dull.

 

Another look at the switch.  Not much to brag about here.

 

The ground connection to the control is redone.  Smooth and shiny is the name of the game when soldering.

 

I labelled the controls BV (Bass Volume,) TV (Treble Volume,) BT (Bass Tone,) and TT (Treble Tone.)

 

Now that the controls are identified, we can install the knobs in the Correct location.  Yes, they were in the wrong place.

 

Earlier I pointed out the stack of three inside-tooth lock washers.  Here’s why I mentioned it:

 

When stacked, the teeth have nothing to push against.  The teeth are literally hanging out in space.

 

A flat washer in the middle will provide some ‘resistance’ for all the teeth to press against, thus restoring the action of the lock washers to that of being, er, well, lock washers.

 

The jacks are Imperial measurement and this washer must have been metric.  A little gun-smithing is in order.

 

The output jacks are wired and tightened into their correct locations.

 

Testing shows no output.  It has something to do with this volume pot.  What the hey??

 

This is the hey.  This bit of conductive solder debris was underneath the volume pot, shorting the ‘stapled’ contacts seen in the previous picture to each other, and thus, shorting the output to ground.

 

Together again, and it’s playing in stereo!

Thanks for reading all the way to the end!

CONTACT – David Latchaw EE
281-636-8626

Ampeg B2-RE Bass Amp Gets New EQ Potentiometers

Bass players use SERIOUS hardware, and this Ampeg B2-RE is a serious, heavy, high-end bass amp.  So why in the world does Ampeg use those tiny little plastic slide pots for the equalizer controls?  The Unbrokenstring Crew digs in.

Ampeg is a name that needs no introduction nor elaboration.

 

Three of the plastic handles are broken off.

 

A tour of the rear panel shows the cooling fan, the quarter-inch speaker jacks and Neutrik jacks for output power.

 

The preamp and power amp can be separated using these jacks,  An effects loop is nice, and a balanced output for the poor sot in the control room is a nice touch.  The balanced output has a switchable attenuator.

 

A look inside shows a big green circuit board that handles the power amp duties.  This view is dominated by the toroidal power transformer on the right.  The ribbon cable on the left carries power to and signals from the preamp board.

 

And here is the preamp board.  Interesting, the slice potentiometers for the EQ are located on their own circuit board on the left side of this picture.

 

The preamp board needs to come out to get to the slide pots.  This end of the cable comes loose easily.

 

Screws hold the preamp board in place in the chassis.

 

All the knobs come off, as well as the nuts beneath them.

 

The input jack has its own nut and washer.

 

While we’re here, an inspection of the unit reveals a solder joint on the path to failing.  This is an easy fix.

 

The slide potentiometers used by Ampeg are special for a couple of reasons.  One reason is, they have this nice vinyl flap over the slot that helps keep dust out of the internals of the potentiometer.

 

The potentiometer board is held down with these screws and brackets.  This needs to come apart next.

 

The other thing that makes these slide potentiometers special is that they use three legs to attach to the circuit board.

 

Here is the exact part number that needs to be specified when purchasing replacements.

 

A similar part is available from other sources, but if you look closely, the ‘pin-out’ does not match.  The correct part is in the foreground, and the ‘new’ incompatible part is seen in the background, with the ‘1736’ marking, which is probably a date code of year = 2017 week = 36.

 

I was curious if the slider and handle could be removed from the new parts and substituted into the old pots.

 

The interior view of the slide pot.  The black plastic thingie with the fingers, on the left, is the wiper, and the black strip on the right is the resistive element.  The fingers slide along the resistive element to achieve the variable resistor function.

 

Oh, drat.  The sliders are a different thickness.  We won’t be able to use the new parts to repair the old controls.

 

So, a week later, a batch of the new controls come in.  We are going to change them all out.

 

What do you think, folks?  Should I clean up the front panel and remove all these presets?

 

The new parts are installed.

 

The workmanship appears to be pretty good, if I do say so myself!

 

Back on the air, this Ampeg is ready to really rumble through its four hour burn-in!

Thanks for reading all the way to the end!

CONTACT – David Latchaw EE
281-636-8626

Boss BCB-60 Pedal Board Repair

This pedal board quit completely during the church service.  Joe got it going again by rewiring around everything after he realized that the power supplied from this pedal board died.  Could the Unbrokenstring Crew get to the bottom of this issue?

Joe has his name on everything!  This pedal board is actually a big rugged tool case, with a self-contained power supply for all the pedals.  Velcro holds everything in place.  As this problem did not actually involve any pedals, they were removed before we got this unit to repair.

 

This is the model number.

 

This is the serial number.

 

Company name and nation of origin.  Not China!  (Yes, I am one of those people.)

 

This panel distributes audio and power in and out.  When power is applied, there is no power out.

 

This is a closeup of that panel.  HINT: You can use any 9v negative center power source, with sufficient capacity.

 

Audio jacks are on the right, and power is on the left.  This whole assembly is wired like a loop-back panel.’

 

Removing the connectors allows full access to the circuit boards.

 

Interestingly, the middle board shares power.and audio.  See the diode?

 

Examination of the solder joints reveal excellent workmanship.

 

This diode on the center board is a anti-polarity-reversal diode.  This prevents bad power from reaching the pedals.  When this diode has failed open-circuit, it prevents ANY power from reaching the pedals.

 

This diode is equal or better than the original part and is the highest-spec’d part that would fit on the board.

 

Reassembly is the reverse of disassembly.

 

Audio and power functions are now completely restored!

Thanks for reading all the way to the end!

CONTACT – David Latchaw EE
281-636-8626

Peavey MKIII Bass Head Needs Un-Smoked

This solid state Peavey Bass head is also capable of handling mixer, equalization, and preamp roles for public address, monitor, and other sound reinforcement roles.  But power amp quit!  Can the Unbrokenstring Crew help?

The AutoMix function that Peavey developed has been discussed elsewhere in the blog.  Lots of EQ knobs here!

 

Note the graphical EQ and bi-amp capability.

 

Woah!  An Instrument System!  Ooh.  Aah.

 

On the rear panel is the power switch and speaker connections.

 

Peavey mixes and matches front panels (inputs, preamp, eq) and rear panels (ps, power amp) to build different heads.

 

As is the case with many pieces of electronics, the City of Los Angeles Fire Department approves this unit!

 

Name, rank, and serial number, please.

 

The blue circuit board at the top is for connections to the power transistors.  The I/O connections are to the left and the power supply filter caps are seen here.

 

More blue boards at the top, for power transistors.  Driver transistors are found on the square heat sinks.  Do you see the problem yet?

 

This circuitry is all preamp and tone circuitry.

 

This sucker got HOT!

 

The worst damage was to components that were near the root cause.  They burned because the transistor on the aluminum heat sink suffered an internal short circuit.

 

The heat of the electrical fault was high enough to melt solder, which happens around 650 deg. F.

 

A matched set of driver transistors were installed and the circuit board cleaned.  The destroyed components to the right have been removed and will be replaced.

 

The new parts are mounted just above the circuit board.  We can get flame-proof resistors now, unlike when the unit was built with in the 1970s.

 

More collateral damage was found on one of the blue boards.  This solder trace acted as a fuse at its narrowest point.

 

The circuit board is now cleaned up and the gap is bridged with a bit of 16awg solid copper wire.

 

Some of the power transistors were shorted as well, so all of them are now replaced with a matched set of eight.

 

These parts are still made by ON Semiconductor, the heir apparent to the Motorola semiconductor product line.

 

The electronics are back together.  The filter capacitors are original, but are still in great shape, so they remain in service.

 

And, of course, after all the components and circuit boards are in flames, the fuse finally does its job.  Of course.

 

With a new fuse, the electronics are connected again and initial tests begin!

 

This unit is back on the air!  This unit is almost hifi sound quality, with endless bottom end.  Good Job Peavey!

Thanks for reading all the way to the end!

CONTACT – David Latchaw EE
281-636-8626

Warmoth FrankenCaster: It Lives!

This offset-waist project guitar is playable and is actually very cool.  The owner had ‘gotten in over his head’ and broken a few screws and buggered a few others.  Could the Unbrokenstring Crew whip this instrument into shape again?

The easy part is to install gold Gibson speed knobs on the controls.  There are a lot of good parts in this instrument.

 

Looking more closely, the neck pocket will need some serious attention.  What’s going on here?

 

This is what’s going on.  If you look at the high and low strings, you will see that they are not the same distance from the edge of the fret board.  This neck is not lined up with the body of the guitar.

 

It is easy to remove the truss rod cover because these screw heads are already sheared off.

 

The heads of the screws around this pickup were mangled to the point that a regular Phillips screw driver would not engage them anymore.  Here we’re using a pair of cutters to twist the screw out while a magnet serves as a sentinel to keep pieces of metal that will inevitably shave off the screw head away from the magnet in the neck pickup.

 

Wow these are long.  These go most of the way through the body.

 

We are still working on this one.  This is really tough.

 

Note that the head is chewed up pretty badly.  New screws are already in stock.

 

No springs or tubing are underneath this pickup, bur rather a chunk of too-thick too-hard foam.

 

Now we know where this body came from!

 

And the neck is from Guitar Fetish.  Here, I marked where the body ends with a dotted line.  More on this later.

 

So what can we do about these broken screws?

 

No problems removing the tuners…  these screws were busted off as well.

 

To remove the broken screws, we apply heat to the body of the screw.  This dries out the surrounding wood so that it shrinks slightly.

 

I used the same technique with the wire cutters to grasp the body of the broken screw to twist it out easily.

 

Rinse and repeat for the remaining broken screws.

 

Now that everything is apart, I need to fix this neck pocket.  First, we get the bottom flat.

 

Then we get the sides flat.  This body was painted after it left the factory, so we have plenty of over-spray in the neck pocket that we need to clear out with this scraper.

 

I believe that we are down to real wood again.

 

Acoustic coupling occurs best when the neck and body fit tightly, ‘bone on bone,’ if possible.  I really like this wood hardener, which is essentially solid Lexan dissolved in a light solvent.

 

This raw wood will take a few coats to seal and harden.

 

As the old cowboy on the cattle drive once said, “Be sure to look back to see if the herd is still behind you.”  Periodic fit checks are always a good idea.

 

This neck is beautiful because of the thick layer(s) of polyurethane finish.  However, the polyurethane layer may get in the way of acoustically coupling the neck to the body.  Here, I’m hatching the area where I will scrape away finish.

 

Again, the luthiers’ scraper is the perfect tool for removing finish evenly and smoothly, leaving the surface exactly flat.

 

That is much better!  Not shown: the finish on the end and sides of the neck where it meets the body is also removed.

 

A pin vise holds the proper-sized twist drill to resize these holes for the Correct pickup screws.

 

A little canned air clears out the cuttings from the holes.

 

Over-sized screws held the pick guard in place.  The Correct screws are smaller.  Here, a small dowel is glued into each hole, which will be re-drilled with the proper-sized hole.  This is hide glue shown here; just fine for this duty.

 

Once the hide glue is cured, each dowel is trimmed flush.

 

I jumped ahead to show how the Correct screws are nearly flush with the top of the pick guard.  Almost factory.

 

This single-coil pickup reads as an open circuit.  That tiny wire is broken.

 

The tiny wire is broken because these black and white leads can twist around.  Hot-glue now holds them stationary.

 

The pickup is working now.  Here is some new, softer foam in place to hold the pickup in position.  Leo Fender would have used short pieces of vinyl tubing on the screws to act as a spring, but these covers go all the way to the bottom of the cavity route, so the foam is the best option for this setup.  Oh, and you can’t see it, but the copper pulled out when the original foam was replaced, so this guitar has copper in the pickup route and under the pick guard.

 

Here is the actual pickup.

 

And here is the separate cover.

 

The Correct screws are not nearly as hard to drive as the other screws.

 

More Guitar Fetish goodness!  The metal parts of the guitar should be tied to a single point, not at various places along the signal path.  This soldered wire ties the metal body of the pickup to one side of the audio path, and has got to go.

 

That connection is now cut open.

 

A separate layer of foil is wired to the single point ground.  The connection to the bridge and strings is accomplished with another sheet of foil and this outside-star lock washer.  Again, the mechanical ground is not part of the signal path.

 

Everything goes together as it should.  See how the star washer makes the connection between the bridge and foil?

 

The Correct controls are marked T for tone and V for volume.  The switch is ready to wire.

 

The new wiring is accomplished with solid wire in Teflon tubing.  The pickup wiring is the vintage ‘push-back’ wire, which is actually really easy to use and can be very clean-looking as the insulation is cut without resorting to wire strippers.

 

When the control plate is in the correct position, new holes are bored for the screws.

 

The neck plate needs some attention.  This metal polishing paste is also what I use to polish fret wire.

 

These holes are reamed to the proper size for the Correct screws.

 

The tuners are going on!  A bit of red felt is glued to the face of the socket so that the finish is not marred.

 

These new screws going into the correctly-sized holes are very well-behaved now.

 

The truss rod cover screws will now live in properly-sized holes as well.  The pin vise is getting a workout today!

 

The customer uses these strings.  We need the guitar strung so that we can get the neck straight.

 

Note that the outside E strings are equidistant from the edge of the fret board.  The screws attaching the neck to the body are tightened at this point.

 

Now that the neck is properly positioned, we can finish the setup.  The truss rod is adjusted to make the neck perfectly straight.  Do you see the slip of paper next to fret 9?  It is used as a feeler to see that the ruler is in contact with the fret board all along the neck.  A piece of paper is about 0.0015 inch thick or so.  It is used to check for fit between every fret on the fret board.  Yes, that makes a difference!

 

This neck is brand new, and so the frets had never been leveled.  Just a tiny bit of sanding was all it took.

 

Here I am taking a measurement of fret wire height.  I need this shortly to file the nut slots.

 

Frets are polished.

 

Fret board is cleaned and conditioned with oil.

 

Here we are cutting the nut slots to depth (about 0.006 inch plus the fret wire height measurement made earlier.)

 

Once the nut slots are at the right depth, the rest of the nut is sanded away to make the slots shallow.  We need to sand a little bit more away near the high E and B strings, and maybe next to the D string.  We’re getting there!

 

The instrument is back together and sounding good!

 

This is a closeup of the saddle barrels.  These are factory intonated and are VERY close to correct.  How do they do that?

 

Our patient is making her debut at the studio.

 

First Note.

 

I think he likes it!

Thanks for reading all the way to the end!

CONTACT – David Latchaw EE
281-636-8626

Peavey MX Combo Amp Rescued from a Bad Amp Tech

This combo amp had lived a hard life and had finally quit.  Grandpa wanted his grandson to get the amp fixed so that they could jam together again.  Could The Unbrokenstring Crew bring this unit back to life?
 We begin with a quick tour of the rear panel.  The ground switch is a tip of the hat to the Old Days of two wire AC.

 

 The foot switch plugs in where the REMOTE SWITCH jack is coming loose.  This gets fixed.

 

 I’m surprised that this hadn’t ripped loose.  The whole connector wil be replaced.

 

 

 Name, Rank, and Serial Number, please!

 

 What have we here?  We found grandpa’s stash.

 

Let’s get this line cord wired correctly.  Do you know what’s wrong?

 

 The black wire goes under the brass screw. “Black on brass will save you ass.”  You’re welcome.

 

 The reverb tank connects to the main circuit board with this connector.

 

 Even after all this time, the high voltage capacitors are still charged.  Woah!  This is my discharge wand at work.

 

 Our first mystery… where does this nut go?

 

 This is a fuse.  No, you think that it is a piece of 16AWG wire, but it is a fuse.  Or, it is where a fuse goes.

 

 And here, someone was tired of the fuses falling out of the holders, or what was left of the holders.

 

 The heat from the flow of current has wreaked havoc on this solder joint.

 

 This probably smelled bad when it was hot.

 

 Now that the introductions are out of the way, we need to start replacing this nonsense.

 

 These are commercial fuse holders.  These will replace all of the preceding nonsense.

 

 The plan will be to install these new fuse holders at a spot in the circuit where they will be functional, yet out of the way.

 

 The new fuse holders are held down with a screw.  This hole is where the screw goes.  Here goes!

 

 Another hole is drilled for another fuse holder.

 

 This hole is in the center of a trace.  We won’t miss that copper.  Much.

 

 Insulating nylon nuts and bolts are used to keep the new fuse holders in place.

 

The traces in the burned circuit boards are replaced with this Teflon-covered wire.

 

 Everything is now stuffed back into place.  Not too shabby, if I do say myself.

 

Turning our attention to the rear panel, your sharp eyes may recognize this connector as a MIDI female panel connector.

 

 To keep the connector hardware in one place, some of this Thread Locker is all we need.

 

 We have the original foot switch.  It needs a new cable, with a connector to match what we just installed in the amp.

 

 This MIDI cable will be repurposed to replace the cable on the footswitch assembly.

 

 We don’t need this connector.  Instead, this end of the cable will be wired to the switches themselves.

 

 The new cable is soldered directly to the switches  Note the strain relief installed to the right of the picture..

 

 This pedal is ready for action once again!

 

 The amp is reassembled and is ready to go!

 

 The four hour burn-in test is underway.  I think we have rescued another vintage Peavey amp!

Thanks for reading all the way to the end!

CONTACT – David Latchaw EE
281-636-8626

Crate Vintage Club 30 Recap

Robin had another of these wonderful Crate combo amps for servicing.  The Unbrokenstring Crew knew just what to do!

Robin’s 50 watt combo was serviced earlier, in this blog post: https://www.unbrokenstring.com/crate-vintage-club-50-amp-repair/

 

This is a 30 watt unit, with very similar construction.  Look at all that St. Louis Music goodness!

 

The loudspeaker is 100% and made in U.S.A.

 

This pic just documents where the wires go.

 

These wires go to the reverb tank.  They are marked with a magic marker so that they can be correctly re-installed.

 

The tubes need to come out as we are removing the printed circuit board from the chassis.

 

These numbers correspond to the tube numbers on the schematic.

 

While we’re here, we’ll make a check of the condition of each of the tubes.

 

Restoring the washer stack is essential to keep the strains on the printed circuit board to a minimum when reassembled.

 

So we are now able to remove the main circuit board.

 

 

As we did with the 50 watt unit, we are taking this opportunity to clean up the front panel.

 

Sure enough, the capacitors have reached End Of Life.

 

This circuit board is now recapped!  Pretty!

 

After reassembly, this quick check shows us that we can drive 30 watts continuously into eight ohms with no problem!

 

This unit has an easy bias setting arrangement.  Here, we’re using the 4 1/2 digit Fluke meter to measure current.  The AC power is supplied by the Variac on the shelf.

 

Some of the cabinet screws were cross-threaded at one time in the past.  So, we can chase them with a die.

 

The captive nuts are cleaned up with a matching tap.  We’re good for Final Assembly!

 

Another fine combo amp is ready for the next million miles!

Thanks for reading all the way to the end!

CONTACT – David Latchaw EE
281-636-8626

Peavey 260 Booster Amp Needs a Boost

A local church has a rack of Peavey gear that drives their public address system.  This unit had failed.  A phone call to The Unbrokenstring Crew was all that was needed to get this unit onto the operating table.
Unlike a traditional guitar amp or stand-alone amplifier, this unit takes high level signals and buffers it to the loudspeakers.  They are often used as a means to fill in or expand the coverage of an existing system.

 

And the inputs are daisy-chain-able.

This is, of course, the volume knob.

 

Here is a tour of the rear panel.  The power switch is ‘center-off’ and, on this unit, does not switch the chassis ground to connect to one side or the other of the AC power line.

 

No tour of a rear panel is complete without a high-rez pic of the power cord.

 

And the name/rank/serial number part of our tour.

 

The AC line fuse was popped.

 

This is, correctly, a five amp slow blow unit.

 

Removing the front and rear panels permit access to all the electronics.

 

The chassis is attached to the rear panel of the unit.  Surprisingly, the power transformer is NOT fastened to the wooden cabinet, but is also attached to the rear panel.

 

These filter capacitors are good and will not be replaced.

 

This unit has a shorted rectifier.  New parts were secured, and are shown here.  Although only one rectifier is bad, the other three are the same age and have experienced the same abuse, so they will all be replaced.

 

The new rectifiers are installed.

 

Funny thing is, the new fuse looks a whole lot like the old fuse, except it is not all exploded and burned and stuff.

 

The output from my radio is amplified to a larger signal using my Marshall Stack, to drive the input of the amp at the proper level.

 

This was the point when the neighbors called the cops to complain of the noise.

Thanks for reading all the way to the end!

CONTACT – David Latchaw EE
281-636-8626

Jasmine Classical Guitar Needs a Setup

Sophia’s classical guitar had developed a buzzing string.  Perhaps the humidity changes had changed the geometry of the instrument.  She immediately called The Unbrokenstring Crew to take a look at it!
This instrument has a truss rod, something a little out of the ordinary for classical guitars.

 

This is an Indonesian instrument, with lots of mahogany throughout.

 

Using the truss rod adjustment, we make the fret board as flat as we can get it.

 

My Super Duper Absolutely Flat sanding bar goes to work on some high frets.

 

Can you see where the metal has been removed?  This is near the tenth and eleventh frets.

 

One side of the fifth fret was particularly high.  This was the source of the original buzz.

 

The wreckage was bad over the body of the guitar, where the fret board was probably glued straight to the sound board.

 

Before we crown the frets, the fret board will be taped off.

 

To clean and condition the fret board, Dr. Duck’s Axe Wax goes to work.

 

These strings are going back on the instrument.

 

The strings are nicely tied off at the block here.

 

The stringing process is documented in earlier blog posts.  Everything is going well here!

 

Sophia performs live while standing.  So, we’ll add a strap button to the instrument lower bout here.

 

The hole for the pin clears the body of the screw.

 

This strap pin is just above the center line of the instrument. so that it will hang flat against her body.

 

This strap pin is from an inexpensive electric guitar that had strap locks installed.  It goes nicely with the binding.

 

At her favorite venue, Dunn Brothers Coffee in Friendswood TX, Sophia tunes up with an app on her phone.  Life Is Good!

Thanks for reading all the way to the end!

CONTACT – David Latchaw EE
281-636-8626

Mesa Boogie Bass 400 Repair and Refurbishment

Craig was very proud of his rack-mount tube-powered bass amp.  But there were crackles and pops while playing.  He wanted to have everything looked-at.  Could The Unbrokenstring Crew get it tuned up?
This is a heavy monster.  Yes, that implies 400 watts out.

 

These are the tubes that were still alive.  We’re missing a couple of pairs.

 

Some contact cleaner/lubricant will be applied with a pipe cleaner into each socket pin.

 

The sockets are in good shape, but just need some chemical attention.  You can still get pipe cleaners, but instead of checking the tobacco aisle, you might look at the gun cleaning supplies section of WalMart to find them.

 

The individual pins on each tube are wiped with the contact cleaner/lube before they are inserted into the unit for testing.

 

The push pull class AB1 pairs are oriented from front to back in the chassis.  Once the operating point was established, pairs of tubes were sorted that had similar characteristics.  So we matched six pairs of tubes to within 2% of each other.  Power and output transformers are seen in the foreground.

 

The amp was driven by a sine wave and operated at 60 watts into a dummy load.  Each pair of tubes were verified in sequence.

 

And this is what six pairs look like while putting 400 watts into a dummy load on a messy workbench.

 

Craig gigged with this amp.  When someone asked what he thought of his rig, he said, “It’s brutal.”

Thanks for reading all the way to the end!

CONTACT – David Latchaw EE
281-636-8626